The Effects of Perceived Parenting and Family Functioning on Adult Attachment: A Sample of Japanese University Students

Qingbo Liu*, 1, Masahiro Shono2, Toshinori Kitamura1
1 Department of Clinical Behavioral Sciences, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kumamoto, Japan
2 Yuge Hospital, Yuge, Japan

© 2008 Kwok and Shek;

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Clinical Behavioral Sciences (Psychological Medicine), Kumamoto University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto, Japan 860- 8556; Tel: +81-96-373-5183; Fax: +81-96-373-5181; E-mails:,


Parenting styles and family functioning have been proved individually to make an important contribution to the development of adult attachment styles. However, few studies have attempted to clarify how these two factors influence adult attachment styles when taken into account simultaneously. In order to examine the relationship between adult attachment, perceived parenting, and family functioning, data derived from 1,141 males (29.6%) and 2,709 females (70.4%) were analyzed in the present study. The results indicated that perceived parenting predicted adult attachment and family functioning, while family functioning failed to significantly predict adult attachment. The present study also highlighted the fact that paternal and maternal parenting played equally important roles in shaping adult attachment styles of offspring.

Keywords: Adult attachment, parenting, family functioning.