Do Parents Rear their Children as they were Reared Themselves? Intergenerational Transmission of Parental Styles (Warmth and Control) and Possible Mediation by Personality Traits
Mio Tanaka1, Toshinori Kitamura*, 1, Zi Chen2, Mikihiko Murakami3, Yoshitaka Goto3
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2009
First Page: 82
Last Page: 90
Publisher Id: TOFAMSJ-2-82
Article History:Received Date: 11/2/2009
Revision Received Date: 11/10/2009
Acceptance Date: 14/10/2009
Electronic publication date: 31/12/2009
Collection year: 2009
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
In order to examine the intergenerational transmission of reported parenting styles (warmth and control) and their mediation by personality traits, a cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted of 396 fathers and 733 mothers of children from less tan 1 to 10 years of age. The participants used the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) to measure their own and their partner’s current rearing styles as well as to assess their perception of the parenting they had received before age 16. Parents’ personality traits were measured using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). in both fathers and mothers, the correlation of the grandparents’ perceived parenting styles were correlated with the current parenting styles reported by parents themselves greater than with the current parenting styles reported by spouse. Thus, we speculated the shared observer bias and used the spouse-report for further analyses. In the fathers, (1) paternal Care was correlated with the grandmothers’ Care and grandparents’ low Overprotection; and paternal Overprotection was correlated with the grandfathers’ Overprotection; (2) Novelty Seeking was correlated with the grandparents’ Overprotection and low Care; Harm Avoidance was correlated with the grandparents’ Overprotection; Reward Dependence, Self-directedness, and Co-operativeness were correlated with the grandparents’ Care and low Overprotection; and Persistence was correlated with the grandparents’ Care; (3) Overprotection was correlated with Harm Avoidance and low Self-directedness. In the mothers, (1) maternal Care was correlated with the grandmothers’ Care; (2) Novelty Seeking was correlated with the grandmothers’ low Care; Harm Avoidance was correlated with the grandfathers’ low Care and the grandparents’ Overprotection; Reward Dependence, Self-directedness, and Co-operativeness were correlated with the grandparents’ Care and low Overprotection; and Self-transcendence was correlated with the grandfathers’ Care; (3) maternal Care was correlated with Reward Dependence, Persistence, and Co-operativeness; and maternal Overprotection was correlated with low Self-directedness. The transmission of Overprotection of fathers and Care of mothers from the grandparent generations was found to be mediated by personality traits.