The Relationship of Temperament and Character Dimensions to Perceived Parenting Styles in Childhood: A Study of a Japanese University Student Population

Mika S. Takeuchi*, 1, Hitoshi Miyaoka2, Masao Suzuki3, Atsuko Tomoda4, Akiko I. Yokoo5, Risa Tsutsumida6, Toshinori Kitamura7
1 Jiyugaoka Sanno College School of Business, Tokyo, Japan
2 Department of Psychiatry, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan
3 Waseda University School of Human Sciences, Saitama, Japan
4 Department of Psychology, Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama, Japan
5 Tokyo Kasei-Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan
6 Psychology of Disorders and Dysfunctions, Kyusyu Lutheran College School of Humanities, Kumamoto, Japan
7 Kitamura Institute of Mental Health, 8-12-4-305 Akasaka, Tokyo, Japan

© 2011 Takeuchi et al;

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Jiyugaoka Sanno College, 6-39- 15, Todoroki, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 158-8630, Japan; Tel: +81-(0)3-3704-4011; Fax: +81-(0)3-3704-7859; E-mails:,


To examine the association between perceived parenting styles in childhood and temperament and character dimensions in adolescence and early adulthood, 836 college students in Japan were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Parental Bonding Questionnaire (PBI). A path analysis revealed that Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance were associated with low Self-Directedness and low Cooperativeness; Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence, and Persistence were associated with Self-Transcendence; and Reward Dependence was associated with Cooperativeness. It also showed that Perceived Parenting (parents' high Care and low Overprotection) was associated with low Harm Avoidance and high Persistence, and was directly associated with Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness, and low Self-Transcendence. These findings suggest that perceived parenting styles are more associated with character dimensions than temperament dimensions. This link was direct or indirect via temperament dimensions.

Keywords: temperament, character, perceived parenting style.